Calvinism, Hyper-Calvinism, & Arminianism:
It might be beneficial to distinguish Calvinism from hyper-Calvinism
because the two are often confused. (Indeed some writers and teachers
confuse them so often and so willingly that one must wonder if the
practice is intentional.) In one sense, hyper-Calvinism, like Arminianism,
is a rationalistic perversion of true Calvinism. Whereas Arminianism
destroys the sovereignty of God, hyper-Calvinism destroys the responsbility of man.
The irony is that both Arminianism and hyper-Calvinism start from the same,
erroneous rationalistic presupposition: Man's ability and responsibility
are coextensive. That is, they must match up exactly
or else it is irrational. If a man is to be held responsible for
something, then he must have the ability to do it. On the other
hand, if a man does not have the ability to perform it, he
cannot be obligated to do it.
Issues Shaping Our Identity as Southern Baptists
The Arminian looks at this premise and says, "Agreed! We know that all men are held responsbile to repent and believe [which is true, according to the Bible]; therefore we must conclude that all men have the ability in themselves to repent and believe [which is false, according to the Bible]." Thus, Arminians teach that unconverted people have within themselves the spiritual ability to repent and believe.
The hyper-Calvinist takes the same premise (that man's ability and responsibility are coextensive) and says, "Agreed! We know that, in and of themselves, all men are without spiritual ability to repent and believe [which is true, according to the Bible]; therefore we must conclude that unconverted people are not under obligation to repent and believe the gospel [which is false, according to the Bible]."
In contrast to both of these, the Calvinist looks at the premise and says, "Wrong! While it looks reasonable, it is not biblical. The Bible teaches both that fallen man is without spiritual ability and that he is obligated to repent and believe. Only by the powerful, regenerating work of the Holy Spirit is man given the ability to fulfuill his duty to repent and believe." And though this may seem unreasonable to rationalistic minds, there is no contradiction, and it is precisely the position the Bible teaches.
Why are these things so important to our discussion? Baptists have been confronted with these theological issues throughout their history. The Arminianism--Calvinism--Hyper-Calvinism debate has played a decisive role in shaping our identity as Baptists, and particularly our identity as Southern Baptists.
--Tom Ascol, "From the Protestant Reformation to the Southern Baptist Convention: What Hath Geneva to Do with Nashville?"