The Friendship of Law and Gospel

When seen In Christ

1 Timothy 1:1-2:15


I.                     The greeting emphasizes the centrality of Christ to Christian Ministry 1:1, 2

A.      His apostleship is particularly of Christ Jesus - 1a

B.       It is by command of Christ Jesus – 1 [cf. Acts 9:4-6, 15-16; 13:2, 3]

C.       It is in light of the hope and salvation brought by Christ – 1b

D.      Jesus distributes equally with the Father the blessings of grace mercy and peace -2

II.                   Paul’s Apostolic Instruction to Timothy 1:3-7, 18-20

A.      The Gospel is not to satisfy the metaphysical speculations of sophists – 4

B.       The Gospel transforms the affections by means of the truth - 5

C.       There is a problem when a teacher has an improper understanding of the Law 6, 7

D.      Timothy is to keep Paul’s command about the nature of a teacher’s doctrine 18

1.        In doing this he will manifest the goal of the gospel cf 5, 19

2.        Hymenaeus and Alexander have not done this and thus demonstrate their faith is not persevering and true 19b, 20

III.                 A Teacher must know the basic relationship between Law and Gospel 1:8-11

A.      The Law serves a good purpose  8 – cf. Romans 7:7-12

B.       The righteous person does not stand in need of the Law – 1:9a  “It often happens that those who wish to be thought to have the greatest zeal for the Law prove by their whole way of life that they are its greatest despisers.  The clearest example of this in our own day is those who maintain justification by works and defend free will.”  Calvin

1.        The Rich Young Ruler could not benefit from Jesus pressing the Law of him, because he thought he was righteous Mark 10:17-27 cf. Lk 18:18-27

2.        The Pharisee considered himself righteous, but the one who knew his sin went home “justified” – Luke 18:9-14

3.        As a Pharisee, Paul considered himself righteous and thus despised Christ – Phil 3:6, 9

C.       It is designed to convict of all kinds of sins – 9b, 10:  This is a catalogue of specific examples of how the 10 commandments are broken

D.      The Law is consistent with the provisions of the Gospel – 11 The gospel is not a contradiction of the Law but its best confirmation.

IV.                 Paul as an example of the Gospel’s operation on a sinner 1:12-17

A.      Counted faithful – cf. 1 Corinthians 4:2 and 9:16, 23, 27  Being made an apostle meant that God had counted Paul as faithful [not chosen him on the basis of foreseen faith]; it was an office conferred on him that would cost him much labor to attain the predetermined goal of faithfulness

B.       His “qualification” for mercy was his vicious lawbreaking and ignorant unbelief:  illustrating that the Law is not made for a righteous man  13

C.       Paul receives from grace both faith and love found in Christ Jesus.  Faith replaces unbelief, and love replaces his murderous cruelty; None of these comes abstractly apart from Christ.

D.      When the Law had done its work of making all men sinners, they are candidates for benefiting from the work of Christ  15  See Hebrews 9:14, 15 for relation between the work of Christ and the cleansing of conscience through the redemptive work of Christ

E.       Paul as chief of sinners becomes a demonstration of the infinite perfection of Christ’s sacrifice and his patience with his elect while he works to bring them to repentance.  All people may take encouragement from this truth of Paul’s reception of converting grace.

F.       As in Romans 11:33ff the exposition of grace give rise to benediction of the unsearchable goodness and glory of God.

V.                   In General What Order and Concern should prevail in the church 2:1-15 –[Specific gifts always will result in different individual ministries as they relate to the body of the church, but this chapter gives an overall framework within which the gifts operate – Men must never omit their obligation to lead the church in its prayer life; women would never be called to engage in the public instruction of a man]

A.      Men must pray  2:1-8

1.        For men in all types of situations, but particularly those who maintain law and order 2:1f

2.        So that holiness of life and propagation of the gospel may proceed unhindered

Ø       Living with dignity in human society is a good thing before God  [3] We must not feel guilty because we live in a country where we have religious freedom; we must use this freedom for responsible Christian living and Christian witness.

·         God uses repressive situations in his own wisdom – Acts 16; Phil. 1; 1 Peter

Ø       This allows the leaven of the gospel to permeate all levels of society and all ethnic groups – God’s salvation is not for the Jews only or for one level of society only 4

·         There is one God, not many – He has created all , all are under his judgment and all must be reconciled to him

·         Only one mediator between sinful humanity and the God who created them; that is the uniquely qualified Christ Jesus – No other could be mediator because only he fully represents both the concerns of deity [eternal Son of God] and humanity [“the man”]

·         Only he could provide the ransom – for “All” : not every individual but every race; It is not contrived to say “all” his elect; cf Romans 8:28-34; Romans 10:11-15 “world=Gentiles; 2 Corinthians 5:11-19 -–Notice the assertion of genuine effectuality in Christ’s substitutionary, reconciling, ransoming death

Ø       This reality shows that Paul’s mission to the Gentiles is warranted 7

·         Three offices – apostle, preacher, teacher

·         He was responsible both for their k owing doctrine as a something “true” and for their heartfelt submission to such truth [“faith”]  cf Gal 3:1-5, 23-29 for Paul’s labor in this calling

3.        Confidence in the singularity and exclusivity of the Gospel Message

B.       Women should focus on quietness, submission, and modesty

1.        Clothing should not be ostentatious but discreet and modest 2:9

2.        She must be characterized by good works [Note that Peter’s instruction to women with unchristian husbands is for “chaste and respectful behavior” that they may win their husbands” “without a word by the behavior of their wives.” 1 Peter 3:1, 2]

3.        She must not assume a position of instruction [that is in the assembly of the entire congregation] but maintain a position of being instructed –She may encourage a man to pursue his task faithfully {Acts 18:24-28; Phil. 4:23, ] but must not be the instructor

4.        Paul’s Rationale for this instruction  to women

Ø       In creation, she was created as one suited to help Adam, but not to rule him.  Adam already was established as the primary one to relate to

Ø       The fall occurred when Satan used the woman as his avenue to temptation, deceit, and disobedience [Genesis 3:1-6]

5.        The reminders of childbirth

Ø       It is painful, thus reminds us of the Fall, but not designed to kill the mother

Ø       Through this means the incarnation occurred [Mt. 1:25; Lk 2:5-7; Gal. 4:4, 5]

Ø       Through the incarnation, one fit to be Savior entered the world


VI.                 Serious contemplation

A.      Can one have confidence that he is a Christian if he does not embrace the connections of necessity between Christ, law and the Gospel

B.       Should anyone who aspires to be a teacher be investigated on this issue prior to acceptance

C.       Can we praise God sincerely and singly apart from the power of these truths

D.      Should not men be aggressive in leading the church to pray and engagement in public prayer

E.       Serious reflection on the nature of Christ’s reconciling work should give us confidence in its proper universality, invincible effectuality, and necessary exclusivity

F.       With the aid of their husbands and the entire church body Women should look for opportunites for godly ministry without violating the divine purpose in their creation and the apostolic proscription